Pakistani food crops and pesticides pollution

Pakistan is an agricultural country. About 25% of Pakistan’s area is under cultivation which accounts for 21.2%GDP and employs about 43% of the labor force. Cotton crop is the hit crop in Pakistan followed by rice and the second most important foreign earning crop of Pakistan. A wide variety of staple, horticultural and cash crops grown in Pakistan reflects serious problems of many types of insect pests. To overcome these problems of pests, Pakistan importing pesticides worth more than billions of rupees every year.

 

Use of these pesticides has a negative relation with pesticides prices but increase of crops prices had raising its usage graphs in Pakistan. Cotton is worse hit crop of in Pakistan whose losses were 3.1 billion bales according to 1998-1999 reports and its pesticides use accounts for about 62% of the total pesticides used in Pakistan.

 

Same case is the rice growing in Sindh and Punjab provinces; according to available reports about 70 insect pests are reported attacking paddy crop and causing 20-25% losses to this important foreign exchange earning crop on recurrent basis. In Pakistan 88.3% pesticides are using in Punjab, 8.2% in Sindh, 2.8% in Khyber pakhtunkhwa and 0.7% in Balochistan province. Out of all pesticides used in Pakistan, insecticides comprised 90% of herbicides, 7% fungicides, and 0.2% acaricides and fumigants.

 

 

Pesticides use in Pakistan started in nineteen fifties with the import of 250 metric tons with steady increase and this increase reached 2159% in 2004 over 2004.

 

Increase was manifested by introduction of pest susceptible verities for high crop production like introduction of delta pine cotton which changed the whole scenario leading to serious pest situation in Pakistan and Mexican weed import in large quantities was proved very disastrous in Pakistan.

 

But after 2004 pesticides usage was reduced to some extent and this decline was attributed to the cultivation of more resistant crops (i.e. BT cotton) and adoption for pest integrated management technology through farmer field schools.

 

 

Although an application of pesticides and fertilizers in Pakistan is delivering good results but these results are too low as compared to other developing countries and also facing serious threats to farmers and local communities.

 

Main source behind low crop production is that majority of farmers are not properly educated and they don’t know about the proper use of pesticides. Their attitudes are very optimistic towards pesticides use they just considering them as a medicine not a source of poison and this overuse is the function of governments relaxed policies which may cause disturbance in the ecosystem.

 

Over dose is most common in cotton crops where 62% used every year. Another result of lack of awareness is that sometimes farmer using pesticides recommended for vegetables on crops and vice versa and these pesticides then persists for long time contaminating vegetables.

 

In most remote areas farmers are applying pesticides when the damaged had done and make visible in crops at this stage those applying overdoses of pesticides for desired results. In some cases farmers are unaware about the conditions of field for pesticides use and they just gone through calendar in such conditions results are the loss of non targeted species.

 

These conditions reflecting relaxed governments policies, lack of knowledge about integrated pest management (IPM). Because majority of farmers considering IPM as hard practices and pesticides use easy.

 

 

Most dangerous problem in Pakistan is the handling and storage of pesticides. According to survey in Pakistan 80% farmers storing pesticides in separate room, 5% in animal room, and 1% in sitting room. Only 50% farmers using protective measures during spray and only 19% farmers getting training of pesticides spray and handling.

 

Leakage in these conditions is most common during carrying and preparation of spray solutions. It is observed that empty containers of insecticides are using by farmers for drinking water, edible oil keeping, and milk and for other domestic purposes or keeping it in courtyard rather than burying them.

 

These empty containers are more exposed to children’s, may contaminate environment or may be lethal for wild life. Disposal of these pesticides are also a matter of consideration because after use the remaining pesticides in containers are directly thrown in fields or to river and seas.

 

This may contaminate ground water table, surrounding environment and human as well. Sudden mass fish killing in Rawal Lake in 2004 was believed due to thrown of out dated pesticides by some pesticides traders into lake.

 

 

Besides these all the government banned carcinogenic most toxic chemicals like DDT and chlorinated hydrocarbons are also still in use in Pakistan. According to past reports these banned toxic chemicals show 10 fold increased in 1986-1987 over 1981-82. Same case is in India where only one in hundred cities does not care DDT in their body.

 

Foregoing review indicates that use of pesticides is an important and integral part in crop production practices but its balance use and efficient management is still a question mark for local communities because its overuse on one hand is the main reason of increasing prices of crops and vegetables and on other hand its posing serious threats to all eco systems of environment.

 

Looking to the role and importance of agriculture in the economy of country and then role of pesticides in agriculture, concern departments need to review and formulate theirs policies. Use of obsolete and banned pesticides, improper storage and reuse of empty containers and lack of awareness should be reduced by awareness and strict policies to safeguard local communities and environment and IPM should be popularized to decrease the use of these pesticides.

This Article is Written by “Sajid Ali” Guest Author At Envirocivil.com 

Published At Envirocivil.com 

Comments
  1. Amin_as_2010

    great effort bro

  2. saqib anwer

    PAKISTAN PEST
    CONTROL

    http://www.ppcfum.com

    92-21-32218113

    921-21-32639899

    Fax: 92-21-32621560

    92-300-2237754

    WE PROTECT YOUR INTEREST IN PAKISTAN
    FOR WOOD/PACKING TREATMENT (INCL. ISPM MARKING) & FUMIGATION OF FOODSTUFF
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    .

    REGISTER MEMBER

    KARACHI CHAMBER OF COMMERCE & IND.

    registered government of Pakistan
    department of plant protection

    ● Fumigation

    All Fumigants used for Fumigation are highly toxic and hazardous in nature, as
    such they are classified as restricted use pesticides by the EPA (Environmental
    Protection Agency).

    A basic requirement is that sufficient personnel trained to fumigate are
    available to carry out all necessary operations.

    Our all fumigation operations are carried out by the trained persons (Verified
    and approved by the Technical Consultant and Plant Protection Department).

    Advantage of fumigation –

    Fumigants are usually quick acting and as result in total control of pest &
    insects.

    Fumigation can control at all stages of pests (i.e. eggs, larvae, pupae, adults
    and hidden insects).

    Fumigants being Gases, they diffuse through all parts of the structure or
    commodity and can reach to pests that could not be reached with conventional
    pest control materials or techniques for certain commodities, Fumigation is the
    only recommended practical way to control pests.

    Fumigation has no adverse effect on Germination quality.

    PAKISTAN PEST
    CONTROL

    PAKISTAN PEST CONTROL is authorized to
    carry out all Quarantine requirements regarding Fumigation and our Certificates
    are accepted worldwide. We are also specialized in Fumigation / Disinfestations
    of residential & commercial building / project besides export cargoes
    Fumigation

    PAKISTAN
    PEST CONTROL:

    > Established in 1979.

    > Approved by PLANT PROTECTION
    DEPARTMENT GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN.

    > Member: Karachi Chamber of Commerce & Industry.

    > Approved Fumigator lists of A.Q.I.S
    Australia.

    > Treatment Certificate are acceptable
    in Australia , New Zealand, USA,
    Europe, China,
    Middle East & Other Countries.

    > Services are appreciated by many
    respectable Clubs / Members of LION CLUBS INTERNATIONAL.

    FUMIGATION:-

    Fumigation is a process of exposing insects or material infested by insects to
    the fumes of a chemical at a lethal strength in an enclosed space for a given
    period of time. Fumigant is a chemical, which at a required temperature and
    pressure can exist in the gaseous state in sufficient concentration to be
    lethal to a given pest organism. Fumigation is the introduction of the toxic
    gas in high concentration so that the gas pervades the entire area and kills
    the insects prevalent and thus preserve the precious cargo of the customer.

    Treatment By Fumigation are:

    Godowns/
    Warehouses/ Silos/ Flour mills/ Empty ship holds Fumigation

    Stuffed & Empty containers of Export/Import at Port/Inland Container Depot
    (ICD)/Container, Freight Stations (CFS) and at House Stuffing Points.

    In-transit Fumigation-Commodities Onboard, Barges etc.,

    Termite Control Treatment during (Pre & Post Construction) Stage as per PSI
    standards with Guarantee.

    Rodent control & De-ratting of Ships.

    Disinfestations Of Warehouses & plants.

    General Pest control services.

    Fumigation is the process
    where a highly toxic Fumigant such as Methyl Bromide or Phosphates are used to
    eradicate pests and insect from products, produce or a location.

    The process involves the Fumigation complete covering or sealing of the product
    or item with canvas, having plastic sheets & taping to make it as airtight
    as possible. The Fumigant gases is then released into the sealed area or
    compartment. The duration of exposure varies from 8 hours to 48 hours,
    depending on the product to be fumigated and the type of fumigant used as per
    temperature & requirement

    Fumigation is a Quarantine requirement for countries such as Australia , New
    Zealand and China before goods are admitted
    into the country.

    Items we fumigate include:-

    Timber

    Wooden/Pallets Packing Material

    Furniture

    Tobacco

    Rice & other Food Stuff.

    Wooden sports goods.

    After treatments we issue
    Certificates & if require also arrange Govt’s Phytosanicary Certificates
    verifying are our treatments.

    FUMIGATION OF RAW MATERIALS:

    i) By
    Methyl Bromide doses require from @ 36 gms per M3 to @ 80 grams per M3

    ii) By Phosphine Gas Tablet dose require @ 1.1 Tab per M3

    (With Instruction to Exporter for proper cleaning & packing).

    CONTAINER
    FUMIGATION WITH METHYL BROMIDE:

    After
    stuffing some time Container goes to container yards terminal, of KPT/QICT
    (inside port areas) Customs Department to fulfill their custom formalities and
    to sealed the container.

    (By special method we can also fumigate the container after custom examination
    with Methyl – Bromide whose exposure done at destination).

    All Fumigation Treatment are monitored by the Expert of PPC for Fumigation
    & after exposure opening Container doors are opened to release gas therein.
    Site inspections may be carried out by the environment health inspectors to
    determine all safety aspects are adhered to. All fumigation’s are carried out
    by our trained experienced fumigators. The concentration of the gas used will
    kill all alive insects pests present at the time of fumigation. Fumigated cargo
    should be shipped out as soon as possible on completion of the process.

    Fumigation are specially with Methyl Promide carried out in accordance to
    “AQIS” (Australian Quarantine & Inspection Services) set
    standards.

    ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE
    FUMIGATION:

    Aluminum Phosphate is in the form of tablets and are
    also use worldwide for fumigation of raw and processed commodities including
    grains, tobacco, nuts seeds, animal feeds, tea, coffee leaf, wheat flour,
    processed spices, dried fruits. It can also be used for fumigating storage
    structures like silos warehouses, flour mills ship holds, railcars etc. The
    period required 3 – 6 days time keeping in view the conditions &
    temperature, USA
    and some other countries requires Phosphine gas Fumigation.

    WOOD TREATMENT
    & WOOD PACKING FUMIGATION:

    ISPM 15
    fumigation accredited to carry out phytosanitary treatment. This includes the
    application of Methyl Bromide Fumigation treatment and IPPC marks defined under
    the International Standards for Phytosanitary measures (i.e. ISPM 15) for solid
    wood packaging.

    ISPM:-

    The
    international ISPM 15 requirements on wood pallets apply to all species of
    coniferous and non-coniferous packaging materials. The standard does not not
    apply to wood packaging made wholly of products such as plywood, particle
    board, oriented strand board, medium density fiber board or products created
    using glue, heat and pressure or a combination of these.

    Most member countries have already partially or fully implemented the
    standards. The EU, Australia,
    Canada and South Africa
    are also implementing bans on coniferous wood packaging and in certain cases
    non-coniferous hardwood packaging, meaning shipping pallets (skids), crates,
    and wood used to secure ocean cargo loads.

    Under the ISPM15 requirements, exporters would be required to heat treat wood
    packaging material to a minimum core temperature of 56AºC for a minimum of 30
    minutes. Exporters could also use methylbromide to fumigate the wood packing.

    The rule requires certification of the packaging with an approved International
    Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) logo. Unmarked Wooden Packing Materials /
    Woods.

    will be considered untreated and (objectionable) non-compliant.

    METHYL BROMIDE
    FUMIGATION

    Methyl Bromide is most widely used fumigant for Quarantine purposes. It is a

    preferred fumigant for most of the quarantine authorities around the world,
    because

    of its good penetrating ability, rapid action, high toxicity to a broad
    spectrum of

    insects and pests. It is frequently used for fumigating timber, agricultural products,

    empty containers, food stuffs, and other agricultural produce. When fumigation
    is

    carried out with Methyl Bromide fumigant residue problems will not be there as

    aeration can be carried out easily. It is very effective in controlling all
    stages of

    insects from egg to the adult stage. Quarantine Authorities around the world
    have

    stipulated that methyl bromide fumigation has to be carried out for all the
    packing

    materials which is made out of Wood, Straw materials.

    The aim is to prevent pests, other insects and biological material from
    being transferred unknowingly from one country to another. Goods packed in wood
    material that does not comply with the ISPM15 standard will be returned to the
    Exporter at their expense.

    The international ISPM15 requirements on wood pallets apply to all species of
    coniferous and non-coniferous packaging materials. The standard does not not
    apply to wood packaging made wholly of products such as plywood, particle
    board, oriented strand board, medium density fiber board or products created
    using glue, heat and pressure or a combination of these.

    Most member countries have already partially or fully implemented the
    standards. The EU, Australia,
    Canada and South Africa
    are also implementing bans on coniferous wood packaging and in certain cases
    non-coniferous hardwood packaging, meaning shipping pallets (skids), crates,
    and wood used to secure ocean cargo loads.

    Under the ISPM15 requirements, exporters would be required to heat treat wood
    packaging material to a minimum core temperature of 56AºC for a minimum of 30
    minutes. Exporters could also use Methyl Bromide to fumigate the wood packing.

    The following information is a complete extract from AQIS Advice Notice No.
    2007/09 regarding ISPM15. ISPM15 requires the use of either heat treatment or
    fumigation using methyl bromide, as the only two approved methods to enable
    compliance.

    1. Compliant Wood
    Packaging Material

    Wood packaging is only recognised as ISPM 15 compliant when the following
    conditions have been met:

    1. It has been treated by an approved treatment; and

    2. It bears an internationally recognised certification mark

    2. Approved Treatments

    Under the ISPM15 standard there are currently only two approved
    forms of treatment:

    Heat treatment (a core
    temperature of 56°C must be reached and maintained for a minimum of 30
    minutes); and

    Fumigation with methyl bromide (as per the table below)

    Temperature

    Dosage (g/m3)

    Minimum concentration (g/m3) at:

    2hrs

    4hrs

    12hrs

    24hrs

    21°C or above

    48

    36

    31

    28

    24

    16°C or above

    56

    42

    36

    32

    28

    10°C or above

    64

    48

    42

    36

    32

    The minimum temperature
    should not be less than 20°C and the minimum exposure time must be 24 hours.
    (as per conditions).

    3. The
    Internationally Recognized Mark

    The mark verifies that the packaging has been subject
    to an approved treatment and that the material has been produced by

    an AQIS approved facility. To be recognised as compliant the mark must include:

    the IPPC mark,

    XX – the country code (AU for Australia)

    YY- the treatment code (HT or MB)

    OOO – represents the unique Certification.

    Exporters should note that countries that are
    enforcing the ISPM 15 standard will NOT accept fumigation or heat treatment.
    Certificates in lieu of the internationally recognized mark, even when the
    packaging has been treated / fumigated.

    Wood packaging material that does not bear the Mark / Stamping is considered to
    be objectionable non-compliant.

    WE PROTECT YOUR INTEREST IN PAKISTAN FOR
    WOOD/PACKING TREATMENT (INCL. ISPM MARKING) & FUMIGATION OF FOODSTUFF &
    CARGOES. INSERT OUR NAME IN YOUR CONTRACTS ******* PAKISTAN
    PEST CONTROL *******

    http://www.ppcfum.com

    92-21-32218113

    921-21-32639899

    Fax:
    92-21-32621560

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