On ever year, 16 September is observed as “World Ozone Layer Day” or “International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer” since 1995. The theme of this year is “A Healthy Atmosphere, the Future Which We Want”. The dedication of this day is commemoration of Montreal protocol which was signed in 1987 to preserve ozone layer from depletion. This event is designated by United Nation General Assembly in its resolution 49/114.
What is Ozone Layer?
Our beautiful planet earth is covered by a natural blanket of three molecules of oxygen i.e Ozone This deep layer of ozone is present in stratosphere layer of atmosphere. It ranges from 15 to 30 kilometer above earth. This layer of ozone which is known to be as Ozone Layer protects not only earth from Ultra violate radiations coming from the sun but also this covering layer protects all the living organism from UV radiations which are harmful for them. Ozone layer absorbs all the harmful radiations in it. Its phenomena are just like staining the flour from strainer.
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This ozone layer was discovered by French physicists Charles Fabry and Henri Buisson in 1983.
Types of UV Radiation and Ozone Layer
From sun, three types of ultra violet radiations are coming. These are UV A, UV B, UV C. The wave length of Ultra violet radiation A is 320 nano meter to 400 nano meter. These are not harmful for living organisms. UV B has wave length between 280 to 320 nanometer. These types of radiations are harmful for the skin. Some of these radiations are absorbed by ozone and some of them pass from it and reach on earth. UV C has wave length less than 280 nano meter. Ozone layer prevents these radiations coming from sun. UV c is very dangerous for all the living organisms and ecosystem.
Ozone layer is only beneficial when it is present in stratosphere layer. It becomes dangerous and act like pollutant when it present in troposphere layer near the ground level because in troposphere layer it contributes in formation of photochemical smog and acid rain.
From many years there is a huge thinning in ozone layer over Antarctic zone. Besides this ozone hole is also found in North Pole during certain weather conditions. In short, it is called Ozone layer Depletion. The question appeared why we are facing the problem of ozone layer depletion? The answer which we got after seeing the anthropogenic activities are we, the human beings and use of CFCs. Today this natural blanket of ozone layer is deteriorating. The thing which is responsible for deteriorating is only release of pollution containing the chlorine and bromine. According to the environmental protection agency of America, a single molecule of chlorine has ability to destroy more than hundred thousand molecules of ozone.
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Causes of Ozone layer depletion
The main causes of ozone layer depletion are “Ozone Layer Substance”. The ozone layer substances are Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) , Halons (brominated fluorocarbons), Methyl Chloroform , Carbon Tetrachloride , Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs). From last 50 years, industrialized nations used heavily aerosols sprays which have CFCs.
Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion
Ozone layer plays a vital role in protecting of living organisms from harmful radiations. Ozone layer is having holes and thinning its lining, living organisms and environment are facing many health problems such as eye cataract, skin burn, skin rashes and skin cancer. Besides this it also disturb environment especially life cycles of plants, breeding of plants animals and micro organisms etc.
There is always a way to solve problems. We can solve problem of ozone layer depletion by saying no to non eco friendly things. We should adopt environmental friendly behavior. Beside this, we should not use those pesticides which are non eco friendly.
Montreal Protocol and Ozone layer
1987, Montreal protocol is a treaty which was signed by representatives of 24 countries (except US) to save ozone layer from depletion. The purpose to sign this treaty is to give an announcement to world that to stop destroy ozone layer depletion.
Scientists are now have hope that this natural blanket will recover by the year of 2050 because of this Montreal protocol.